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A light-absorbing dye thats present in the film to prevent reflections and light spread that would create a halo around bright highlights. The dye disappears during processing.
A hole in the lens that adjusts in diameter, similar to the way the pupil of an eye works. This controls the amount of light reaching the film or CCD to record an image. Every different diameter opening has a number which indicates the size - it equals the focal length of the lens divided by the diameter of the aperture. These numbers are also called stops. See f/number.
A mechanical lever or electronic button used to close the lens aperture down to the actual exposure setting so depth of field can be previewed.
An auto-exposure mode where you select the required lens aperture and the camera sets the necessary shutter speed, to give the correct exposure based on the auto meter reading. This mode is ideal for landscape and still-life photography where maximum depth-of-field is required. It's either indicated on the camera as AP (aperture priority) or AV (aperture value).
A ring that is situated near the lens throat on all manual focus lenses and some autofocus models that adjusts to control the amount of light reaching the film or CCD when recording an image. Cameras that don't have an aperture ring often have an electronic control to adjust the aperture either automatically or manually.
A special design of lens that is highly corrected to avoid chromatic aberration by bringing the three blue, red and green wavelengths to one point of focus rather than the usual blue and green of an achromatic lens. Because red is also brought to the same point of focus, you don't need to refocus when taking infrared pictures with this type of lens.
Advanced Photo System, a camera and film system designed jointly by Kodak, Fuji, Nikon, Canon and Minolta. The film cartridge, with a slightly smaller film than 35 mm film, is as easy to load as a battery film as it slots effortlessly into a chamber on the camera, and can be exchanged for another film without having to finish the roll. It also has a status indictor on one end showing if the film is unused, partially used, used but unprocessed or processed. So you won't hand in an unexposed roll for processing or put a film through the camera twice and double expose everything. The system allows the photographer to have his settings recorded on the back of his prints, which is automatically done by the processing lab. Although a few APS SLR models were made by Canon and one other manufacturer, most APS cameras tend to be compact and easy to use, but they are often less versatile than 35mm cameras at equivalent price points. The APS system is now regarded as an interim product, used only by consumers, which was popular for a short time, until better compact cameras became available at affordable prices. Most manufacturers have discontinued production of APS cameras. APS film is still available here and there, and processing labs still accept APS film.
Advanced Photo System type-C should not be confused with the Advanced Photographic System (APS) camera/film system, since the former is digital and the latter is analogue. APS-C is a type of image sensor found in certain digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. These sensors are smaller than the ones used for the conventional 36 mm x 24 mm (35 mm) sensor SLR cameras (also called full frame DSLR cameras). Being smaller causes a 1.x multiplier for the effect of the focal distance of the lenses, in comparison with the effect of those lenses on conventional 35 mm film SLR cameras or full frame digital SLR cameras. Several manufacturers produce cameras with an APS-C sensor and some even make lenses especially for them. These lenses are found in the Canon EF-S, Nikon DX, Pentax DA and Sigma DC ranges, to name the most popular ones. The most common multiplier ratios are 1.6 (Canon), 1.5 (Nikon, Fuji, Sony, etc.), 1.3 (Canon). (1.3 crop sensors are also sometimes called APS-H.) Most manufacturers not only produce cameras with these cropped sensors, but also offer DSLR cameras with full frame sensors.
Extra steps are taken when developing and printing to ensure the most stable image is made.
A development by Dr. Mike Ware of Kallitype and Van Dyke Brown, Argyrotype produces brown silver prints of subtle graduation on plain artist's paper. The sensitiser, which can last a year or more if correctly stored, should be spread evenly on the print using a glass rod. After a few minutes to allow it to soak in, the print should then be dried for ten minutes at 40C or for half an hour at least at room temperature. A contact printing time of 5-10 minutes under the sun or a good source of UV light is normal. After exposure, develop and clear the print in gently running water for around 5 minutes, and then use a fixing solution for 3 minutes. At this point the colour will intensify, changing from red to a deep brown, which can be turned more blackish-brown by ironing dry at this stage.
Irregular flaws in image colour or sharpness caused by CCD problems, noise or compression.
Used to describe any continuous man made light source such as tungsten and fluorescent lighting.
A code for exchanging information between data processing systems and peripherals such as postscript printers.
A lens element that doesn't form part of a sphere. This is physically difficult to manufacture as most grinding/polishing equipment operates with a spherical action. This sort of lens is often moulded out of plastic or coated onto a glass element.
A high speed Internet connection that is many times faster than a normal modem. It allows your normal or digital phone line to be used, but you need additional hardware installed to connect to the service. Some telecom exchanges also need to be set.
A series of photos taken rapidly by the camera each giving a slightly different auto exposure.
Early colour transparency system, using a mosaic of additive colour filters.
The camera uses an infrared beam or the subject's contrast to measure the camera to subject distance and focuses the lens automatically
A camera mode, also known as Bulb or Brief, that keeps the shutter open for as long as the shutter release is pressed. This is useful for recording night scenes, fireworks and light or star trails.
Uses the flash to illuminate your subject that would otherwise be silhouetted by strong light from behind.
Override of the camera's auto-exposure setting that increases the exposure by between one and two stops. Use this mode to prevent a silhouette when taking photos while the light is behind the subject.
Bag-shaped bellows that are used to allow unrestricted camera movements with a wide-angle lens attached to a large-format view camera.
Service provided for Internet use. A higher bandwidth allows faster connections and downloading from the internet. Large images, video or sound clips can be downloaded quickly to save time and reduce your telephone bill.
Folding metal flaps that attach to the front of a studio light to control the light spill and prevent light straying on to areas where it's not wanted.