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Glossary

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A lens aberration that causes straight edges to bow outwards, giving a barrel-like appearance.
Fibre-based paper.
A medium/large format camera with a fold-out baseboard that supports the lens board and bellows.
An automatic exposure mode which is specifically designed for the correct exposure of bright scenes. On cameras without an automatic mode for this, but with a manual mode, correct exposure can be achieved by overexposing by about two stops
A shutter with blades that is positioned near to the aperture within a lens (also known as a leaf shutter).
A numbering system that uses two digits 0 or 1. In digital imaging terms 0 is off or white and 1 is on or black.
A shortened name for binary digit 0 or 1. This is the smallest unit of digital information used by a computer or digital camera.
The number of bits used to represent each pixel in a digital image. This figure suggests the image colour or tone range.
A digital image formed by a grid of pixels. The computer assigns a value to each pixel - ranging from 1 bit of information black or white) to as much as 42-bits per pixel.
Chemical used to reduce image density.
Streaks or halos appearing around bright areas of an image that are caused by gross overexposure to the CCD. It's like an electronic equivalent of flare.
Bokeh is the English form of the Japanese word boke, which means blur. It refers to how out-of-focus parts of a photo look. Different lenses produce different-looking out-of-focus backgrounds, depending on things like the number and shape of their aperture blades. In general it could be said that the softer the out-of-focus elements look, the more pleasing the bokeh.
A metal pole that attaches to a lighting stand and holds a flash head at the end. A counterbalance weight is also usually used. This is used to get the flash closer to the subject as well as over or under it.
A feature of electronic flashguns that have a head that points upwards so that the light can be bounced off a ceiling to soften and spread the light.
Light that is reflected off a surface before reaching the subject. Flash is often bounced off a ceiling or card to soften the result. Reflectors can be used to bounce light into shadow areas to reduce contrast.
The difference in luminance from the darkest to lightest areas of the image.
Printing paper mainly with silver bromide emulsion.
Bromoil printing has the advantage that images are created from bromide enlargements - so 5x4 inch or 8x10 inch internegatives are not required. The bromide print is bleached, leaving behind a faint image, which then picks up an pigment applied by means of a brush. Any colour of pigment may be used.
The application you use to surf the Internet. Microsofts Internet Explorer is the most common browsers for Mac and PC platforms. Other common ones are Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator.
A problem in software or hardware that was'nt discovered when it was originally created. This can cause conflicts, erratic operation and crashes and can often be fixed by introducing an upgrade programme or installing a newer bug-free version.
Film sold in long uncut lengths. It usually works out much cheaper in this form and is cut into required lengths.
Darkroom technique used to darken selected areas of a print. Several image-editing programs also include a similar tool to darken pixels.
The standard measurement of a digital file size. One byte is eight binary digits (bits), allowing 255 possible combinations of 1s and Os. A kilobyte (KB - not to be confused with kb [kilobit]) is 1024 bytes.
The standard processing formula for most colour negative and chromogenic films.