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An organisation that created a universal colour mode that describes colour in a 3D axis which they called Lab mode. This mode allows all visible colour to be specified and has a luminance (L) channel and an A and B channel that represent colour values.
CIPA test camera batteries to make it easy to compare their expected life. There is a standard measuring procedure for high power-consuming functions such as colour image display activation, use of flash, zoom and retractable lens movement. It doesn't include audio and movie recording functions.
Tiny disc of light. Images formed by a lens are made up of these discs. The smaller these are, the sharper the image.
The time taken for a film emulsion to lose its milky appearance at the fixing stage of film processing.
A feature available on many image editing programs that lets you replace one area of the image using a sample from another. Use this to remove scratches or flaws, duplicate items or add bits from one picture to another.
The ability of the cameras lens to focus close to the subject. Most designs allow a close focus of around 20cm. Ones that go closer are often described as having a macro mode.
On compact cameras, this mode allows the camera to focus closer than normal. On SLR cameras this mode will select a large aperture to blur the background to help isolate your subject.
Sold by filter manufacturers such as Hoya and Cokin to improve the close focusing capability of a lens.
An alternative capture device to the CCD. Its currently as stable as a CCD but has the advantages of higher pixel count, less battery consumption and lower cost.
Three subtractive colours used in inkjet printers to form a colour photo. All three are combined to produce black but the result is quite muddy so a separate black ink is included to improve density.
An enlarger that has a fluorescent tube light source to produce highly diffused illumination.
The amount of colours that can be captured by the scanner : 24-bit is 8-bit red, 8-bit green and 8-bit blue, giving a total of over 16 million colours. Most of the latest scanners have 30-bit or 36-bit, to capture billions of colours. In practice it's very difficult to see any difference once you go beyond 24-bit.
A problem with a CCD that makes random colour pixels appear around edges.
A type of head of an enlarger that has a set of three colour filters (cyan/magenta/yellow) that can be adjusted to make a colour print from a negative or transparency. It can also be used to produce different paper grades using special variable contrast paper.
A calibration program that's used to ensure uniform colour appearance of digital images from input to output devices. Helps ensure that what you see on the monitor matches what you print out.
A printing process that separates a color image into cyan, magenta, yellow and black layers. Film is made for each colour which is then used to make printing plates for each colour ready for the printing press.
The colour of the light source measured in Kelvin (K). Most colour films are balanced for 5500K which is the colour temperature for average daylight conditions. Lower values produce a yellow/orange cast, higher colour temperatures produce a blue cast.
A 35mm compact is a camera that is usually small enough to fit into a bag or coat pocket. Its ideal of you dont want much fuss or easily become confused by complicated features. Most offer point & shoot modes and many have overrides and creative modes for the more advanced users. Cameras start at around 20 and go up to 500 or so for highly advanced models.
A removable memory card used in digital cameras to store pictures. The current maximum capacity is 256Mb.
The colour created when one of the three red, green or blue primaries is taken away from white light. Complementary colours are cyan, magenta or yellow and are also known as secondary colours.
A digital process that reduces the number of bits in an image to reduce the file size. The benefit is that it takes less storage space and can be e-mailed quicker. There are two types of compression – Lossy which permanently loses detail and Lossless that returns all the data. JPEG lossy compression is the common method for digital imaging and can be adjusted to offer low compression which maintains most of the quality or higher compression which starts to affect image quality.
Indicates which method the product uses to connect to the computer. SCSI methods are generally the fastest, but also potentially the most difficult to set up, especially when you have several other items connected or installed. SCSI needs a special card installed to support the product. Most PC and new Macs don't have one so you may need to add this. Parallel is the slowest method of data transfer that's normally used to connect a printer to the computer If you also have a scanner or older card reader there's usually an adaptor to run it from the same connection point as the printer. This can protrude further out of the back of the computer so make sure you have the space to allow this.USB and Firewire are the new, easier methods of connection. Firewire is more popular on MAC platforms and is the fastest system, but also currently the least popular. Both recognize that an item has been attached and install necessary software from the supplied CD, using simple help menus. Both can be connected and disconnected with the computer and peripheral turned on. Unlike SCSI or Parallel, where both have to be switched off.
A lens in the enlarger head or spotlight that concentrates the light to a point of focus.
A reference print made by laying the negative strip directly on photographic paper and exposing to light so that the result matches in size.