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A measure of contrast used in processing to determine the correct grade of paper to use to print a negative with a full tonal range using a diffuser enlarger.
Strips of pre-exposed film or paper that are used to test the accuracy and consistency of processing chemicals.
Indicates whether the flash head incorporates a fan or ventilation system to ensure it doesn't overheat. This can be important on power full units.
A high contrast black & white mode designed specifically for photographing text.
The visible colours that are created by colour development.
The image area that a lens covers that will produce good even exposure and sharpness. This should exceed the film format area to ensure theres no fall off at the edges. Also the covereing power needs to be large if a camera with lens movements is used.
Central processing unit. This is a computer's microprocessor that's connected to the motherboard. Its speed is measured in Mhz, which indicates how quickly the computer can handle data. You need a fast one to minimise processing time while working with digital images.
In a general sense, a critique is an evaluation of someone's work or ideas. Someone's work is examined, and its creator is provided with a judgment. This can sometimes be negative, especially when the person giving the critique concentrates on the limititations of the work he is evaluating. In a specific photographic sense, a critique is an evaluation of the stronger and weaker aspects of a photograph. The community on ePhotozine generally prefers an even more positive approach, more like that of constructive criticism. In the Reader Gallery and even in the Critique Gallery, most ePhotozine users prefer a critique to offer well-reasoned opinions about other members' photographs, with the intention of helping the photographer, rather than taking an oppositional attitude. And the wording should always be diplomatic. Normally, on ePhotozine, the best critique method is the "sandwich approach", whereby any negative criticism is "sandwiched" between positive remarks. Example: "Good composition and exposure. You may want to straighten the horizon. But overall this is a pleasing image."
Describes how much an imaging sensor has been cropped in relation to its full-frame equivalent. It always describes how many times larger the full-frame is in relation to the cropped sensor. Take an APS-C sensor with a crop factor of 1.6, for instance. This indicates the sensor is 60% of the size of a frame of 35mm film. The crop factor is used to calculate how much of the equivalent of the full-frame field of view the cropped sensor will have with a lens. In order to calculate this, one multiplies the focal length of the lens by the crop factor. A 1.6 crop-factor, for instance, will give a 100mm lens the same field of view as a 160mm lens on a full-frame camera.
To trim off edges of an image, removing unwanted areas to improve composition.
Camera movement usually found on large format cameras that allows the front lens panel to shift sideways parallel to the film plane.
Invented by Herschel in 1842, Cyanotype produces characteristic Prussian Blue images through the combination of iron salts with potassium ferricyanide. Once coated, the paper can either be left to dry by air in a darkened room or heat dried with a hair dryer. The image is formed by contact printing using the sun, but because the process cannot resolve fine detail, working from a line negative is recommended. Once exposure is complete, wash the print in cold running water for around 30 minutes until all yellow is gone. To brighten the highlights, rinse the print briefly in a dilute chlorine bleach bath, or to lighten specific areas, use a brush and bleach diluted 1:32. As well as paper, Cyanotype prints can be made onto heavy cotton or canvas, but you should avoid exposing finished images to bright light, or they will fade.
Value used to describe the maximum density in an image.
Value used to describe the minimum density in an image.
Used to describe the task of linking computer accessories such as hard disks and scanners to a connection such as a SCSI port on a computer.
Stray electrical charge that appears in areas of the CCD elements that are not exposed to light. The result is irregular noise in image areas such as shadows.
A removable plastic or metal sheet that slides into a sheet-film holder or film magazine to protect film from light when the holder is removed from the camera.
Digital information processed by a computer.
A pattern on the base of APS film cartridges that tells the camera the film speed and number of exposures, so when loading a film you don't have to worry about getting it wrong. Or, in a more general sense, a data disc can be any disc with electronic files on it.
This is how much data (usually indicated in megabytes [MB]) that can be stored on either a hard drive or a drive's removable media disks.
A replacement back for a camera that records the date, time and sometimes more advanced exposure information on the film frame or in the rebates.
An organised list of information, such as a catalogue of pictures or collection of records that can be quickly sorted within fields.
Colour film balanced for subjects lit with a colour temperature source of 5500K.