Some years ago, they did a survey of pro sports photographers. They concluded that something like 95% of all sports photogs that used a motordrive ended up using the first frame of a sequence. Virtually all the rest used the second. There is no substitute for knowledge of the game and some anticipation. When people machine-gunned, they tended to get shots either side of the crucial moment.
You can position yourself to improve your chances...eg if shooting your team, you might want to be behind the goal line at the end they are shooting into, that way, most of your players will be face on. Shooting from halfway, or along the sideline rarely gives a lot of good chances. How the game is going will affect where you stand too...if your team is on top, most of the action is likely to happen in the opponents' end, and vice versa.
No, not every time you shoot will you get a useable shot, because the players don't always move the way you want.
Yes, other players will get in the way and spoil your composition, masking the subject suddenly, just as you shoot the killer shot.
The best way I've found, is to keep both eyes open and watch the game with your camera up. If you are familiar with it, you will know what is likely to happen - eg when a shot will come, or a tackle. Players jumping for a corner or free kick. Last ditch sliding tackle or goalkeeping saves. You should be able to anticipate the peak of the action. With your camera ready and set, you only have to concentrate on framing and shooting, which is a split second instinct thing, and practice is the best way to improve your hit rate.
The worst kind of game is a 0-0 midfield battle - it's sometimes hard to find enough 'action' shots that are interesting enough! That is not just football, but rugby, hockey, in fact almost anything you can walk round the pitch at. Just look at where the pros go at matches, and you'll get the idea.
With this shot, I wouldn't have known this was a really hard shot. All the action is hidden behind the front player. As above, you need to have the main subject as uncluttered as possible. Settings and exposure are ok, you can work with this, so keep on practising and it will come.
Trackies....never allowed in my day!