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Glossary "C"

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The standard processing formula for most colour negative and chromogenic films.
A cable that screws into the camera (on film camera bodies usually into the shutter release, on digital bodies elsewhere) so the shutter can be fired remotely with minimal shake. Some have a lock so that the shutter can be held open on the B setting.
An area of internal memory that temporarily holds reusable data to ensure a faster access time. Large programmes, such as PhotoShop, require quite a bit of cache, otherwise they get very slow.
This type of photography focuses not so much on planning and careful setup, instead it concentrates on showing spontaneity: a candid photographer prefers not to plan his pictures and captures people without having them pose. He likes to be unobtrusive in order to achieve this. This, of course, contrasts with other types of photography where the photographer carefully stages or composes his images, like in portrait, landscape or still life photography. A candid photographer captures moments in time from life as it really is. Also see street photography, documentary photography.
Unit for storing and releasing a pulse of electricity. Used in flashguns to hold the charge.
An overall bias of the image towards one colour.
A lens that uses reflected and refracting surfaces to form an image. More commonly known as a mirror lens.
The tube used to project an electronic image to the computer monitor screen.
A charge-coupled device or image sensor. It consists of an integrated circuit with an array of linked ("coupled") capacitors which are sensitive to light. In digital photography, the CCD is used to capture images, which in analogue photography would be captured on film. CCD technology is not only used in digital photography, but also in astronomy and other branches of science.
A single, light-sensitive area on a CCD that records unique image detail. This is also referred to as a photosite.
The total number of pixels on a CCD array. This is not always the best indication of a camera's resolution as some CCD chips have a number of pixels around the that are only used to ensure the pixels that are used produce accurate colours. The true indication of a camera's resolution is the two figures quoted, say 1600x1200, which indicate the CCD's actual output. "A ... MP camera" is used to describe a model that has a CCD with a certain number times million pixels, which says something about how big the images are that it can create.
This is an indication of the speed that a device can find and display data from a CD. Most modern computers now come with high speed CD or DVD drives.
This is the speed that a device can write data using a CD-RW. A CD is about 74 minutes long so a 2x speed would record a CD in a half of that time.
Here is an indication of the speed that a device can write data using a CD-R. A CD is about 74 minutes long so a 4x speed would record a CD in a quarter of that time.
A CD that can be used only once to write data on using a CD-Writer.
This looks just like an audio CD and is used to carry up to 740MB of computer data, including images and software.
A CD that can be re-used to write data on using a CD-Rewriter.
Battery-powered light sensor cell that was widely used in old hand held exposure meters.
A common tripod feature that provides extra height without making the model much larger to carry. As this is a single column it can make the camera support unstable with increased vibration noticeable. Try to avoid using this where possible and always increase the leg length to gain height first before resorting to the centre column. Centre columns that have a crank handle and a geared control or those with pneumatic-dampening make it easier for you to accurately control the height adjustment.
A meter reading pattern that biases the measurement towards the centre of the frame.
One of the earliest forms of camera meter that takes a reading from most of the image area, but biases the measurement towards the lower central portion of the image. In landscape photography its a good idea to point the camera down slightly and take a reading without any sky in the view to ensure more accurate results.
A graph used to show a film emulsion or developer's limits of tonal reproduction, relative speed and fog level.
A grid of electronic light sensors that convert an image into a digital picture.
A warm-tone printing paper that has silver chloride and silver bromide emulsion.
Chromatic aberration, also called "colour fringing" or "purple fringing", is caused by a lens not focusing different wavelengths of light onto the precise same focal plane and/or by a lens rendering a different magnification each of different wavelengths. These two different types of chromatic aberration can both occur in one and the same image. Chromatic aberration can be seen as colour fringing around the boundaries that separate dark and bright parts of the image. It most frequently occurs around the edges of the image, especially in wide angle shots. Despite begin called "colour fringing" or "purple fringing", chromatic aberration can also affect black and white photography. Although a black and white image obviously has no colours in it, chromatic aberration can blur the image.
Processing materials made by Ilford that are used to make prints from colour slides. Although still widely used the Cibachrome name was changed to Ilfochrome over a decade ago.
An organisation that created a universal colour mode that describes colour in a 3D axis which they called Lab mode. This mode allows all visible colour to be specified and has a luminance (L) channel and an A and B channel that represent colour values.
CIPA test camera batteries to make it easy to compare their expected life. There is a standard measuring procedure for high power-consuming functions such as colour image display activation, use of flash, zoom and retractable lens movement. It doesn't include audio and movie recording functions.
Tiny disc of light. Images formed by a lens are made up of these discs. The smaller these are, the sharper the image.
The time taken for a film emulsion to lose its milky appearance at the fixing stage of film processing.
A feature available on many image editing programs that lets you replace one area of the image using a sample from another. Use this to remove scratches or flaws, duplicate items or add bits from one picture to another.
The ability of the cameras lens to focus close to the subject. Most designs allow a close focus of around 20cm. Ones that go closer are often described as having a macro mode.
On compact cameras, this mode allows the camera to focus closer than normal. On SLR cameras this mode will select a large aperture to blur the background to help isolate your subject.
Sold by filter manufacturers such as Hoya and Cokin to improve the close focusing capability of a lens.
An alternative capture device to the CCD. Its currently as stable as a CCD but has the advantages of higher pixel count, less battery consumption and lower cost.
Three subtractive colours used in inkjet printers to form a colour photo. All three are combined to produce black but the result is quite muddy so a separate black ink is included to improve density.
An enlarger that has a fluorescent tube light source to produce highly diffused illumination.
The amount of colours that can be captured by the scanner : 24-bit is 8-bit red, 8-bit green and 8-bit blue, giving a total of over 16 million colours. Most of the latest scanners have 30-bit or 36-bit, to capture billions of colours. In practice it's very difficult to see any difference once you go beyond 24-bit.
A problem with a CCD that makes random colour pixels appear around edges.
A type of head of an enlarger that has a set of three colour filters (cyan/magenta/yellow) that can be adjusted to make a colour print from a negative or transparency. It can also be used to produce different paper grades using special variable contrast paper.
A calibration program that's used to ensure uniform colour appearance of digital images from input to output devices. Helps ensure that what you see on the monitor matches what you print out.
A printing process that separates a color image into cyan, magenta, yellow and black layers. Film is made for each colour which is then used to make printing plates for each colour ready for the printing press.
The colour of the light source measured in Kelvin (K). Most colour films are balanced for 5500K which is the colour temperature for average daylight conditions. Lower values produce a yellow/orange cast, higher colour temperatures produce a blue cast.
A 35mm compact is a camera that is usually small enough to fit into a bag or coat pocket. Its ideal of you dont want much fuss or easily become confused by complicated features. Most offer point & shoot modes and many have overrides and creative modes for the more advanced users. Cameras start at around 20 and go up to 500 or so for highly advanced models.
A removable memory card used in digital cameras to store pictures. The current maximum capacity is 256Mb.
The colour created when one of the three red, green or blue primaries is taken away from white light. Complementary colours are cyan, magenta or yellow and are also known as secondary colours.
A digital process that reduces the number of bits in an image to reduce the file size. The benefit is that it takes less storage space and can be e-mailed quicker. There are two types of compression – Lossy which permanently loses detail and Lossless that returns all the data. JPEG lossy compression is the common method for digital imaging and can be adjusted to offer low compression which maintains most of the quality or higher compression which starts to affect image quality.
Indicates which method the product uses to connect to the computer. SCSI methods are generally the fastest, but also potentially the most difficult to set up, especially when you have several other items connected or installed. SCSI needs a special card installed to support the product. Most PC and new Macs don't have one so you may need to add this. Parallel is the slowest method of data transfer that's normally used to connect a printer to the computer If you also have a scanner or older card reader there's usually an adaptor to run it from the same connection point as the printer. This can protrude further out of the back of the computer so make sure you have the space to allow this.USB and Firewire are the new, easier methods of connection. Firewire is more popular on MAC platforms and is the fastest system, but also currently the least popular. Both recognize that an item has been attached and install necessary software from the supplied CD, using simple help menus. Both can be connected and disconnected with the computer and peripheral turned on. Unlike SCSI or Parallel, where both have to be switched off.
A lens in the enlarger head or spotlight that concentrates the light to a point of focus.
A reference print made by laying the negative strip directly on photographic paper and exposing to light so that the result matches in size.
A measure of contrast used in processing to determine the correct grade of paper to use to print a negative with a full tonal range using a diffuser enlarger.
Strips of pre-exposed film or paper that are used to test the accuracy and consistency of processing chemicals.
Indicates whether the flash head incorporates a fan or ventilation system to ensure it doesn't overheat. This can be important on power full units.
A high contrast black & white mode designed specifically for photographing text.
The visible colours that are created by colour development.
The image area that a lens covers that will produce good even exposure and sharpness. This should exceed the film format area to ensure theres no fall off at the edges. Also the covereing power needs to be large if a camera with lens movements is used.
Central processing unit. This is a computer's microprocessor that's connected to the motherboard. Its speed is measured in Mhz, which indicates how quickly the computer can handle data. You need a fast one to minimise processing time while working with digital images.
In a general sense, a critique is an evaluation of someone's work or ideas. Someone's work is examined, and its creator is provided with a judgment. This can sometimes be negative, especially when the person giving the critique concentrates on the limititations of the work he is evaluating. In a specific photographic sense, a critique is an evaluation of the stronger and weaker aspects of a photograph. The community on ePhotozine generally prefers an even more positive approach, more like that of constructive criticism. In the Reader Gallery and even in the Critique Gallery, most ePhotozine users prefer a critique to offer well-reasoned opinions about other members' photographs, with the intention of helping the photographer, rather than taking an oppositional attitude. And the wording should always be diplomatic. Normally, on ePhotozine, the best critique method is the "sandwich approach", whereby any negative criticism is "sandwiched" between positive remarks. Example: "Good composition and exposure. You may want to straighten the horizon. But overall this is a pleasing image."
Describes how much an imaging sensor has been cropped in relation to its full-frame equivalent. It always describes how many times larger the full-frame is in relation to the cropped sensor. Take an APS-C sensor with a crop factor of 1.6, for instance. This indicates the sensor is 60% of the size of a frame of 35mm film. The crop factor is used to calculate how much of the equivalent of the full-frame field of view the cropped sensor will have with a lens. In order to calculate this, one multiplies the focal length of the lens by the crop factor. A 1.6 crop-factor, for instance, will give a 100mm lens the same field of view as a 160mm lens on a full-frame camera.
To trim off edges of an image, removing unwanted areas to improve composition.
Camera movement usually found on large format cameras that allows the front lens panel to shift sideways parallel to the film plane.
Invented by Herschel in 1842, Cyanotype produces characteristic Prussian Blue images through the combination of iron salts with potassium ferricyanide. Once coated, the paper can either be left to dry by air in a darkened room or heat dried with a hair dryer. The image is formed by contact printing using the sun, but because the process cannot resolve fine detail, working from a line negative is recommended. Once exposure is complete, wash the print in cold running water for around 30 minutes until all yellow is gone. To brighten the highlights, rinse the print briefly in a dilute chlorine bleach bath, or to lighten specific areas, use a brush and bleach diluted 1:32. As well as paper, Cyanotype prints can be made onto heavy cotton or canvas, but you should avoid exposing finished images to bright light, or they will fade.