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Glossary

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Also known as a reverse or inverted telephoto, this lens design has a diverging lens element positioned in front of the aperture and a converging element positioned at the rear. This makes the distance from the rear of the lens to the focal plane longer than the lens focal length. Retrofocus design has been adopted in wide-angle lenses so the rear of the lens does not impede the movement of an SLR camera's reflex mirror.
A film to produces transparencies that are viewed with projected light.
The three additive colours that mixed in digital imaging to create the large range of colours. Overlapping these colours in varying strengths creates cyan, yellow and magenta while equal proportions creates white. Computer monitors create accurate colour by firing light through red green and blue phosphors while digital cameras and scanners use RGB filters over the CCDs to create the colour information.
A flashgun that has a circular electronic tube that is positioned around the camera lens or on the filter thread. It’s used in macro photography to produce an even distribution of light while fashion and still-life photographers create interesting halo shadows around the subject.
Software used by high-end postscript printers that prepares the file to be printed by converting vector images into a bitmaps.
A control found mostly on large format cameras that allows the lens to be raised parallel to the film plane. Its used in architectural photography to ensure the verticals of buildings stay straight when shooting with wide angles from low viewpoints.
An adaptor that fits onto the back of a large format camera to allow roll-film to be used back. Also used on many medium format cameras to allow film to be changed mid-roll.
A rolling shutter exposes different portions of the frame at different points in time, “rolling” through the frame.

Used in many CMOS sensors, exhibiting skew, wobble, and partial exposure.
Digital memory used in computers that cannot be overwritten. Many of the basic operating system controls are factory installed in the ROM and cannot be accidentally erased.
Design of binocular prisms that allow straight tubed body used by many of the slim pocket style models. The other is porro prism that has prisms arranged at 90 degrees, giving a step shaped, and more bulky, design.
A filtered light thats used in a darkroom to allow you to see while handling light sensitive material. Orange is used for most black & white materials, red for ortho, brown for variable contrast papers and a very deep green for colour materials.
Invented in 1834, Salted Paper Printing was Fox Talbot's original printing technique. It's a simple idea. Paper is soaked with weak salt solution, then silver nitrate is brushed on, and the result is silver chloride. Finished prints have a beautiful delicacy in the lighter tones, but slightly lack in detail overall. Images are contact printed onto art paper sized with starch and then rinsed and given a final wash in several changes of water. The final colour is normally reddish-brown, but by toning with gold a wider range of hues can be created, from reddish-brown to blue- or purple-brown. This also makes the image more permanent.
A strong rich or vibrant colour.
A measure of the strength of colour in a photograph. Many software programs allow you to adjust saturation adding grey to make the image appear more monochrome or removing grey to produce rich, highly saturated colours.
A computer peripheral that turns prints, artwork or film into digital files.
The number of rows of dots in a halftone image within an inch which is stated as lpi (lines per inch).
The scrolling feature changes the way a person interacts with their Mac, especially users with large monitors. The wheel enables the user to scroll through documents easily without using scroll bars. The user can scroll horizontally or vertically. The result is saved steps, saved time, and less frustration.
A universal type of connector, pronounced skuzzy that’s used to attach external peripherals, such as hard drives and scanners, to a computer. Most SCSI adaptors will allow up to seven items to be connected in a chain, providing they each have a different ID number which can be selected independently on each device. This method of connection can be troublesome and is slowly being superceded by USB and Firewire.
A type of memory used in PCs that's faster than EDO Ram.
A type of camera flash synchronisation, found on more sophisticated SLR cameras, that fires the flash just before the second shutter blind closes. It’s used with slow shutter speeds to photograph moving objects. As the movement will be blurred before the flash freezes the subject it appears with a trail behind it. Use normal front curtain sync and the trail will appear unnaturally in front of the subject, making it look as though it is moving backwards.
Yellow magenta and cyan, which are also known as complementary colours.
A method of focusing using a wide aperture to ensure shallow depth of field and put emphasis on an individual area of a scene.
A mechanical or electronic feature that delays the camera shutter from firing so the user can step into the picture.
A computer with a huge hard drive that is used in offices to store large quantities of files that can be accessed by several computers joined in a network. Its also used by ISP companies to look after subscribers web sites.