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A technique used to prevent light from the enlarger reaching certain parts of the printing paper so that the exposure can be modified locally.
Light-sensitive film thats held in sheet film holders for use in large format cameras.
A camera designed for achitectural photography that has a wide angle lens mounted on a panel that moves up, down or sideways to correct perspective.
A lens in a mount that can be shifted up or down to correct perspective. Also known as a PC (perspective Control) lens.
An auto exposure mode where the user selects the shutter speed and the camera sets the necessary aperture to give correct exposure.
A button that's usually found on the right-hand side of the camera that you press to take a picture. Most cameras have a two stage release. The first pressure activates the camera's autofocus and metering modes and the second fires the shutter. Some older cameras have a thread in the centre that you would screw a cable release in to. Some may have a collar around the edge that you turn to lock the shutter to prevent it being fired accidentally.
Cameras have various methods of blocking the light from reaching the film or CCD. When a picture is taken this barrier, known as a shutter, will open and allow light to reach the film or CCD. Most cameras have a way of controlling how long the shutter stays open and this duration is known as the shutter speed. More sophisticated cameras can adjust from several seconds to speeds as rapid as 1/10,000sec. Cameras with wider ranges are usually more versatile.Buying advice: Look for a camera that has speeds way below 1/30sec. The longer the speed the lower the light you will be able to take pictures in without having to use flash. As an indication, a speed of around one sec is required to take street lit scenes and a speed of over 30 seconds for moonlit shots. Buy a model with a B setting if you're considering taking extremely long exposures.
In digital photography this is the amount of correct picture information to unwanted electrical interference. The S/N ratio should always be high so that good quality noise free pictures are produced.
The light sensitive ingredient in photographic film and papers that is a combination of silver with bromine, fluorine, chlorine or iodine. Exposed silver halide particles form metallic silver that turns black when developed. Unexposed particles are dissolved by the fixer, leaving a permanent image.
Type of computer memory chip that can be increased by the user. It has now been superceded by Dimms.
A filter which is used in front of the lens in order to filter out UV light that can cause a blueish haze. UV filters have much the same purpose, but a skylight filter is also coloured slightly pink (or yellow) in order to give pictures a warmer appearance. In the digital age these filters are used less than before, since colour temperature can be influenced in-camera and in processing, especially when using the RAW file format.
A flash accessory, also known as a slave cell thats used to fire another flash remotely so that multiple flash set ups can be arranged without cables and all synchronised with the cameras shutter.
Similar to a fade feature but used with two projectors. As one slide fades out the other begins to fade in creating a dissolve between the two.
A useful feature that reduces the lamp output to make the image gradually become darker on screen. This prevents the viewer from sudden bursts of light or dark as slides are changed and gives a more pleasing transition from one slide to the next.
A feature on some projectors with is a tiny diffused panel that you can place a slide on to view and check it's the right way up before inserting it into the projector. This may be included on the remote control.
A digital camera mode that has an interval timer built in to the image review mode so you can watch all the images recorded by the camera as they play back at pre-selected intervals. More advanced models may have fade between each shot.
There are several types of tray (also called magazine or holders) that are used by slide projectors. The common one is the Universal (U) - a straight magazine with a capacity of 36 or 50. This is the type to use if you have a collection of slides in mounts of varying thickness. Then there is the CS system developed by Agfa for their special CS mounts. These are very thin mounts with grooves that slide and lock securely into the tray so they don't fall out when the tray is tipped upside down. 100 can be held in the same space as a 50 capacity universal tray but the mounts have to be CS type. A tray offering a best of both worlds approach is LKM (designed by Leitz Kindermann) these hold 80 of any make of slide mounts, providing they are 1.6mm or thinner, and take up the same space as a universal 50 capacity tray. The final is the carousels (R) which are better if you intend leaving the projector running, as the sequence repeats from the beginning again when it's run through the collection. Carousels hold 80 or 100 slides depending on make.
An SLR or single-lens reflex camera is really designed for the enthusiast or professional photographer, or for the person who can put up with a larger camera in return for increased accuracy and greater versatility. This type of camera has through the lens viewing with a mirror behind the lens and a pentaprism to direct the light passing through the lens to the optical finder. The mirror lifts up out of the way as a photograph is taken. As you look through the lens that takes the picture, the composition can be more accurate. And in most cases you can exchange the lenses, giving you a wider scope of options. The metering and focusing systems are usually more accurate too. Despite all this creativity it's still possible to put most SLRs in a full auto point & shoot mode so anyone could use one with ease, but don't expect to fit one in a pocket! They are much bigger than that. A modern, digital version of the SLR is called a DSLR.
A removable memory card thats used in digital cameras, phones and MP3 players to store pictures, data or sound.
A conical tube that fits over a studio light that gives you more control over the light beam and forms a small circular patch on the subject. Often used as a hair light on portrait photography.
A box with a diffuser panel that attaches to the front of a flash to give soft even light. Any visible highlights such as catch lights in eyes, reflections in silverware will be neat and square. Bigger ones give more surrounded and even light but absorb more light so are best used with powerful flash heads.
Computer programs or applications that are used to edit images, write text, design pages, etc.
Allows a short audio recording to be made using a built-in microphone on some digital cameras. This is useful to add messages to pictures, exposure details, location info, etc, so that it can be played back when you view the pictures. It's great for multi-media presentations.
A range of wavelengths measured in nonometers (nm) that includes infrared, X-rays, radio and the visible light. Visible light falls into the 400-700nm part of the spectrum.
A spirit level is used to ensure the tripod head is perfectly horizontal. It's handy for architectural and landscape photography as it helps you keep verticals truly vertical and avoid a sloping horizon. It a feature that's missing from many tripods, but you can buy an accessory that slide into the camera's hot shoe or screw into the shutter release. Alternatively a small spirit level from the local hardware store would be adequate.