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A type of internal memory for personal computers.
Portable or studio lighting that's created by an electronic discharge through a recycling gas-filled tube.
Software that you load on a computer of a given system to make it work like a computer of a different system, so applications for the other system can be run on it. This can be useful, for instance, for Mac owners who want to run Windows imaging software on their computers, or the other way around.
Light-sensitive silver halides mixed with additives and gelatin that are coated on a film or paper surface to create photographic film or printing paper.
A process where the slither-like image-carrying surface of a Polaroid print is removed from its base and repositioned on a new paper or film support.
An enlarged photo print.
A file format used to transfer graphics from one program or device to another.
Abbreviated form of ePHOTOzine.
Network technology used to link two or more computers together to ensure fast and convenient file transfer.
The combined shutter and aperture values used on older cameras and light meters.
Electronic Viewfinder - shows the view from the camera lens on a small electronic display.
The circle of light that you see when you look through a pair of binoculars the wrong way round (when held at arms length). The exact size can be measured by dividing the objective lens by the magnification of the binoculars. A 10x50, for example, would have an exit pupil of 5. This figure, also referred to as the brightness index, is most important in low light. As a guide you should ensure the binoculars have a similar sized exit pupil to our own eyes' pupils. In low light our eyes' pupils open to about 5 to 7mm wide to allow more light to pass to the retina. So if you intend to use the binoculars at night, indoors or in dense woodland, choose a pair with a similar value exit pupil. In bright conditions the pupils contract to about 2 or 3 millimetres and in such conditions the extra transmitted light isn't needed.
Taking several versions of the same photograph using different exposure settings to ensure one accurate result. Some cameras have an auto bracketing mode which will have the camera automatically fire off several frames of varying exposure in succession.
Dial or buttons on a camera that allow the user to override the automatic exposure mode. Most cameras have +/-2 stops control that is enough to compensate in situations where the camera's system would normally be fooled. On digital compacts it's invaluable in adjusting exposure. It can also be used to modify contrast when a film is to be pushed or pulled.
This is an indication of the film's tolerance to exposure. A film with a wide exposure latitude will still produce acceptable results when the film has been under or overexposed by several stops.
This is how the camera adjusts the shutter speed and aperture to ensure the right amount of light reaches the film or CCD. Early cameras only had a manual mode (M) where the user had to select the aperture and shutter speed manually to ensure the correct exposure. Over the years cameras have become more sophisticated and now offer several automated modes including Program (P) - a fully automatic exposure mode that sets the aperture and shutter speed; Aperture priority mode (AP) where the user selects the aperture and the camera sets the necessary shutter speed; and shutter priority (SP, or Tv on some cameras) where the user selects the shutter speed and the camera sets the necessary aperture. Auto bracketing (AB) takes a pre-selected number of photographs, one at the suggested exposure and one to either side, so you can be sure of one accurate result. There are also several subject-based program modes that we haven't listed here that tailor the camera for particular subjects such as sports (action), landscapes, portraits, or flowers (close-ups). Some digital cameras have black & white and sepia modes. Buying advice A full auto program mode is ideal for point-and-shoot photography, but it's also useful to have some control over the exposure. The beauty with digital is that you can see whether the camera has got the shot right by previewing the image on the LCD. If not, you try again. If there is no manual control you can often preset the exposure using an auto-exposure lock or exposure compensation. The subject based program modes are often a waste of time and don't really bring much to the package. Special effects modes on digital cameras are also throw-away because all these can be created using the computer later.
Used in the zone system to segment the exposure range into one-stop intervals from O to IX.
A larger version of a basic computer keyboard that has additional function keys which can be assigned to trigger regular actions such as printing, connecting to the internet and file saving.
1. A small program that enables a Macintosh computer to control things such as print drivers and USB devices. 2. In a more general computer sense, it is an alphanumerical character string appended to a file name and delimited by a full stop (period). In the file name photo.jpg, "jpg" is the extension, which tells the computer that it is dealing with a certain type of compressed image file.
A hollow tube that fits between the lens and camera body to extend the lens-to-film/sensor distance and increases its close-focus capability. Although extension tubes can be bought separately, they often come in sets of three tubes with different lengths, which can be used indivually, or in any given combination.
The distance your eye can be away from the eyepiece of binoculars. Models with a longer figure will offer more comfortable viewing, especially for spectacle wearers.