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A numerical measure for the darkness of a tone.
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Used to balance the light of a scene with overly bright highlights. There are physical filters to use in front of a camera lens, and digital filters for use in imaging software. A physical graduated neutral density filter, for instance, has one clear edge and then gradually increases in density towards the other edge. A so-called "hard grad" has a graduated section that reaches the middle of the filter, whereas a "soft grad" has a graduation all from one side to the opposite side. Neutral density graduated filters are the most common types, but there are also coloured versions available - gradient sunset filters, for instance, or tobacco-coloured ones. Physical filters are usually square or rectangular, are used in a filter holder that attaches to an adapter ring, which screws into the front of the camera lens. Sizes depend on the diameter of the front of the lens. Gradient filters can also be applied digitally in photo editing programs. Even when this is not a standard option in the program, often a so-called "plug-in" can be used for use in the program.
A measure of how the step from high to low density reproduces in a developed film that has been exposed to a high contrast subject. A high acutance developer produces a steeper step from low to high density and, as a result, makes the image appear sharper
Chemical used to reduce image density.
Three subtractive colours used in inkjet printers to form a colour photo. All three are combined to produce black but the result is quite muddy so a separate black ink is included to improve density.
Value used to describe the maximum density in an image.
Value used to describe the minimum density in an image.
An instrument used to measure the density of film or paper images.
Where you accidentally expose an unprocessed film to light and create an unwanted veil of density. Sometimes cameras have a light leak around the sealed film chamber and the fogging appears as orange streaks spreading across the film.
A colour or grey tone fill that gradually changes in density across the selected area. Some programs refer to it as a graduated fill and several patterns can be applied to vary the direction or style of gradation.
Set of tones displayed in steps from minimum to maximum density.
A colourless grey filter that's used to evenly reduce the light reaching the film or CCD without affecting the colour.
The density of a material such as a film or filter. In digital terms, opacity can be adjusted to make it look less prominent or allow a lower layer to show through.
A chemical thats used to reduce the density of a processed negative, often referred to as Farmers Reducer.