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MPO, or Multiple File Format, is a camera image format, first used on Fujifilm's Real 3D W1 camera. A file contains two or more separate jpeg images. On the Fujifilm camera it's a stereo pair that gives the realistic 3D effect when combined at the viewing stage.
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On some Ricoh cameras MPOs are created from the Multi-Target AF mode, where seven photos are taken in quick succession, each at slightly different focus points. The files can then be merged to create a focus stack, with incredible depth-of-field.