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A system developed by Ansel Adams that considers subject brightness and negative exposure which, when combined with developing and printing gives you total control over the final prints tone values.
Used in the zone system to segment the exposure range into one-stop intervals from O to IX.
Focusing system in some of the latest autofocus cameras that takes measurements of the subject distance from various parts of the image area, rather than just the centre. Some cameras allow manual selection of this point so you could, for example, set it up to focus on a zone to the left of the image if the subjects you shoot are regularly off centre.