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Stingray

By Pollyjc
From Wikipedia
Most stingrays have one or more barbed stingers (modified from dermal denticles) on the tail, which are used exclusively in self-defense. The stinger may reach a length of approximately 35 cm (14 in), and its underside has two grooves with venom glands.[3] The stinger is covered with a thin layer of skin, the integumentary sheath, in which the venom is concentrated.[4] A few members of the suborder, such as the manta and porcupine rays, do not have stingers.[5]

Stingrays are common in coastal tropical and subtropical marine waters throughout the world. Some species, such as Dasyatis thetidis, are found in warmer temperate oceans, and others, such as Plesiobatis daviesi, are found in the deep ocean. The river stingrays, and a number of whiptail stingrays (such as the Niger stingray), are restricted to fresh water. Most myliobatoids are demersal (inhabiting the next-to-lowest zone in the water column); but some, such as the pelagic stingray and the eagle rays, are pelagic.[6]

While most stingrays are relatively widespread and not currently threatened, for several species (for example Taeniura meyeni, D. colarensis, D. garouaensis, and D. laosensis), conservation status is more problematic, leading to their being listed as vulnerable or endangered by IUCN. The status of several other species are poorly known, leading to their being listed as Data Deficient.[7]

The flattened bodies of stingrays allow them to effectively conceal themselves in their environment. Stingrays do this by agitating the sand and hiding beneath it. Because their eyes are on top of their bodies and their mouths on the undersides, stingrays cannot see their prey; instead, they use smell and electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) similar to those of sharks.[8] Stingrays feed primarily on molluscs, crustaceans, and occasionally on small fish. Some stingrays' mouths contain two powerful, shell-crushing plates, while other species only have sucking mouthparts. Stingrays settle on the bottom while feeding, often leaving only their eyes and tail visible. Coral reefs are favorite feeding grounds and are usually shared with sharks during high tide.[9]

Tags: Fish Sealife Underwater photography Ray Stingray Sting Wildlife and nature

Voters: bobpaige1, HobbitDave, ddolfelin and 13 more


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Comments


13 Feb 2016 12:58PM
Beautiful underwater photo, interesting info too.

Dave Wink
ddolfelin Plus
10 103 3 Wales
13 Feb 2016 1:18PM
Brilliant work!
fotobee 8 4 3 South Africa
13 Feb 2016 4:46PM
Lovely photo indeed, and most interesting and descriptive narrative ! Regards Martin
gajewski 17 10 9 United States
24 Feb 2016 9:37PM
POlly, this is beautiful. Where did you shoot this?

=\Walter
Pollyjc Junior Member 7 5 England
25 Feb 2016 10:29AM
Hi Walter! THANK YOU the UA, very much appreciated! SmileThis Ray is just one of many underwater shots I took back in 2011/2/3, during trips to the Maldives., with my trusty Fujifinepix in an underwater case.

PollySmile
gajewski 17 10 9 United States
25 Feb 2016 4:49PM
You are very welcome.
Thanks for getting back to me. I really do like this shot -- and all your underwater images.
-=\Walter

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