The Portuguese planters revolted against Dutch rule, and after the battle of Tabocas (3 August 1645) ended with a Dutch defeat, the Dutch were forced on the defensive. In many areas the Portuguese won back territory, and at the end of the year 1645 the Dutch possessed only Recife and, in its vicinity the Forts of Cabedello (Paraibá) and Ceulen (Rio Grande do Norte), and the islands of Itamaracá and Fernando de Noronha. The Dutch garrison itself was demoralized, and in addition there was a shortage of food and supplies to sustain the population.
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Landscape and travel
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